Urologists are surgeons, but much of their work also involves the medical management of conditions or disease without surgery. They work with patients of all ages from babies and children to elderly people. Conditions treated include disorders of the:


Bladder – stones, tumours, congenital disorders, incontinence in women and men and erectile dysfunction.


Male reproductive organs – impotence, tumours, congenital disorders, infection, sterilization and male infertility.


Urethra and prostate – tumours, obstructions and infections.

Urology was the first surgical specialty to use minimally invasive techniques such as endoscopy and key-hole surgery, techniques which continue to be regularly used by urologists. Urology is also at the forefront of developments in robot-assisted surgery.  Urologists use a thin lighted instrument known as a cystoscope to examine the bladder and urethra.

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